Document Type : Research Paper
Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), University of Maragheh, 55136-553, Maragheh, Iran
Department of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Zanjan, University Blvd., 45371-38791, Zanjan, Islamic Republic of Iran
With the exponential growth in data volume, especially in recent decades, the demand for data processing has surged across all scientific fields. Within astronomical datasets, the combination of solar space missions and ground-based telescopes has yielded high spatial and temporal resolutions for observing the Sun, thus fueling an increase in the utilization of automatic image processing approaches. Image processing methodologies play a pivotal role in analyzing solar data, a critical component in comprehending the Sun's behavior and its influence on Earth. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of diverse processing techniques applied to images captured from the solar photosphere. The introduction of our manuscript furnishes a description of the solar photosphere along with its primary characteristics. Subsequently, we endeavor to outline the significance of preprocessing photospheric images, a crucial prerequisite before engaging in any form of analysis. The subsequent section delves into an examination of numerous reputable sources that have employed image processing methodologies in their research pertaining to the Sun's surface. This section also encompasses discussions concerning recent advancements in image processing techniques for solar data analysis and their potential implications for future solar research. The final section deliberates on post-processing procedures as supplementary steps that are essential for deriving meaningful results from raw data. Effectively, this paper imparts vital information, offering concise explanations regarding the Sun's surface, the application of image processing techniques to various types of photospheric images, indispensable image preprocessing stages, and post-processing procedures aimed at transforming raw data into coherent and comprehensive insights.