Simulation of a Simple Wolter Telescope of Type I by Geant4 for Some Widely Used Materials

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

2 Faculty of Physics ,Semnan University, Semnan, Iran


At the present work, the reflection of X-rays from surfaces composed of silicon, gold, iridium, and nickel is simulated in the range of E ≤ 5 keV energy for the two cases, which includes raw mirror surfaces and a typical Wolter-I optics-based X-ray telescope. We used Geant4 and a proper optical extension to use Geant4 as a general purpose X-ray tracing package. The reflectivity of the materials and the efficiency of the telescope for the materials have been obtained as a function of energy. Except for silicon, the efficiencies are close to each other for the materials. Of course, we generally see a larger value for nickel. Due to the importance of Wolter-I optics in the simulation of the X-ray telescopes and enhancement of the sensitivity of X-ray telescopes by increasing the reflectivity, the results of the present study have particular use in the manufacturing process of an X-ray telescope.


[1] Agostinelli, S., & et al. 2003, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A, 506, 250.
[2] Singh, K. P. 2005, Resonance, 10, 8.
[3] Wolter, H. 1952, Annalen der Physik, 445, 94.
[4] Ramsey, B. D., Austin, R. A., & Decher, R. 1994, Space Sci. Rev., 69, 139.
[5] Buis, E., & Vacanti, G. 2009, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A, 599, 260.
[6] Masini, A., & et al. 2020, ApJS, 251, 2.
[7] Matt, G. 2019, Astron. Nachr. 340, 35.
[8] Malaguti, G., & et al. 2005, Proceedings of the SPIE, 5900, 159.
[9] Daillant, J., & Gibaud, A. 2008, X-ray and neutron reflectivity: principles and applications, Springer.
[10] Zhao, D., & et al. 2017, Exp. Astron., 43, 267.
[11] constants.